why do we need a constitution meritnation

4. - In
his famous speech to the Constituent Assembly he stated that when the world
sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. Freedom and power bring
responsibility. The service of India means the service of the millions who
suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality
of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to
wipe every tear from every eye.
Union List: Union List includes subjects of national importance; such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency.


They are included in this list because we need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country. The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List. State List: State List contains subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. The State Governments alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the State List.


Concurrent List: Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession. Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list. If their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Government will prevail.


Residuary List: Anything out of purview of above mentioned list is taken as residuary subject. Union Government has the power to legislate on these subjects. Special Status: Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution. Many provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to this State without the approval of the State Assembly. Indians who are not permanent residents of this State cannot buy land or house here. Similar special provisions exist for some other States of India as well.


Union Territories: There are some units of the Indian Union which enjoy very little power. These are areas which are too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing States. These areas, like Chandigarh, or Lakshadweep or the capital city of Delhi, are called Union Territories. These territories do not have the powers of a State. The Central Government has special powers in running these areas.


This sharing of power between the Union Government and the State governments is basic to the structure of the Constitution. It is not easy to make changes to this power sharing arrangement. The Parliament cannot on its own change this arrangement. Any change to it has to be first passed by both the Houses of Parliament with at least two-thirds majority. Then it has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the total States.