why do onions make our eyes water

Your mother asks you to chop some onions and the mere thought of it can literally make you cry. Have you ever wondered why do onions bring tears to our eyes when we cut them? We will tell you why. Everyday Chemistry - Why do onions make us cry? The mere thought of chopping onions can literally make you cry. But the moment your knife touches the onion, your eyes start burning and you have tears in your eyes. Heres why it happens. What do onions contain? Onions contain amino acid sulfoxides that form sulfenic acids in the onion cells. Both the enzymes and the sulfenic acids are kept separately in the cells. When you cut the onion, the otherwise separate enzymes start mixing and produce
propanethiol S-oxide, which is a volatile sulphur compound that starts wafting towards your eyes.

The gas that is emitted reacts with the water of your eyes and forms sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid thus produced causes burning sensation in your eyes and this in turn leads to the tear glands secreting tears. Thus you end up with watery eyes every time you cut onions at home. It is the sulphur compound in the onions that also leave a typical odour of onions on your hands and utensils even after washing. Tips to avoid the tears: Make sure that you keep your fans off while cutting onions. If it is running, the air is on constant circulation, which will lead to the spread of gas and increase the burning sensation in your eyes.

Refrigerate the onion before cutting. By refrigerating, you freeze the enzymes from mixing with the sulfenic acids and the production of propanethiol S-oxide is stopped. As a result, sulphuric acid is not formed when you chop the onions. Wear safety goggles while chopping onions. It is also a good idea to keep away the gas from reaching your eyes. Cooking the onion inactivates the enzyme. So cook the onion after you de-skin and before letting the knife touch the onion. Soak onions in water before cutting. Water absorbs the gas and you can avoid the tears. Lighting a candle or a lamp near the chopping board is another effective way to avoid the tears. When a candle is lit near the chopping board the gas that is emitted from the onions get drawn towards the flame of the burning candle or lamp and it does not reach your eyes Avoid cutting the onion till the root.

This will prevent the mixing of enzymes with the sulfenic acids and you can spare your eyes of the burning sensation and tears. Q. Why does cutting onions make our eyes tear? A. When an onion is cut, certain (lachrymator) compounds are released causing the nerves around the eyes (lacrimal glands) to become irritated. These compounds consist of methionine and cystine that are part of the amino acid family. (Protein is made up of several of these amino acids grouped together. ) When an onion is sliced or diced, the onion s cells release these compounds into the air.

When this occurs, "enzyme" works to alter the amino acids into lachrymator compounds. This form of sulfuric acid irritates the nerves around the eyes making them tear. How can we prevent this reaction? Use a sharp knife to cut the onion to reduce the amount of damage to the onion cells. Cool the onion in a refrigerator to suppress the scattering of the lachrymator. Soak the onion in water to dissolve the amino acids. (Cutting the onions in half or quarters before soaking them is even more effective. ) Wear swimming goggles or ski goggles while cutting the onion. Use a ventilator or fan to blow the allyl sulfide away. What is lachrymator? Irritation to the tear glands causes it to secrete tears continuously without being influenced by the intent and emotion to cry.

The chemical compounds released by the onions are allyl sulfide and they also exist in garlic and spring onions. What is amino acid? An organic compound containing an amino group (-NH2), a carboxylic acid group (-COOH), with over 80 natural side groups, of which over 20 compounds being able to form proteins. What is enzyme? A high polymer produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalysts. There are several types of enzymes with each of them displaying a definite chemical reaction. What is a catalyst? A substance that alters a chemical reaction without being affected itself.