why do public policy fail in developing countries

1. Introduction
1. 1 The Case Study 1. 2 Arguments in Brief 2. The Implementation of Environmental Policies in Developing Countries 2. 1 The Dual Mandate of Governments 2. 2 Organizing the State: Centralization versus Decentralization 2. 3 Implementing Public Policies 2. 4 Implementing Environmental Policy in Developing Countries 3. Obstacles to Policy Implementation in the Creation of Protected Areas 3. 1 A Short History of the Evolution of the Concept of Protected Areas 3. 2 Categories of Protected Areas 3. 3 Costs and Benefits of Protected Areas 3. 4 The Framework for Explaining Failed Efforts to Establish Protected Areas 3. 4. 1 Lack of Political Support 3. 4. 2 Lack of Funding for Protected Areas 3. 4. 3 Lack of Institutional Capacity 3. 4. 4 Lack of Cooperation and Coordination at the Local Level 3. 5 Tourism as a Force for Establishing Protected Areas 3. 6 Protected Areas in Brazil 3. 6. 1 Evolution of Environmental Institutions in the Brazilian State 3. 6. 2 Evolution of Protected Areas in Brazil 4. 1 Introduction 4. 2 The Background of Bahia and Tourism Development 4. 2. 1 State Tourism Development Program 4. 3 Understanding Environmental Policy and APAs in Brazil and Bahia 4. 4 Evolution of Environmental Management in Bahia and the Outcome: The Creation of APAs 4. 5 Establishment of Protected Areas in Bahia: Obtaining Political, Institutional, and Financial Support 4. 5. 1 Getting Political Support at the State Level from Pro-Development Actors 4. 5. 2 Funding APAs by Involving Nonenvironmental Agencies 4. 5. 3 Competition among Governmental Agencies can Improve Institutional Capacity 4. 5. 4 Getting Local Support: APAs as Potential Investment Magnets 4. 6 The Bahian Model : Horizontal Decentralization with Checks and Balances 5.


Lessons for Policy Studies 5. 1 Learning from the Research: A New Framework of Analysis 5. 1. 1 Learning from the Case: How to Overcome the Four Obstacles 5. 2 Lessons for the Classical Policy Implementation Literature 5. 3 Integrating Economic Development and Environmental Protection in the Public Sector 5. 4 Horizontal Decentralization for Policy Implementation: Incentives with Checks and Balances 5. 4. 1 Decentralization without Much Coordination But with Checks and Balances 5. 4. 2 The Forgotten Type of Decentralization: HorizontalDecentralization 5. 5 The Role of Local Actors and Central Governments in Decentralized Policy Implementation 5. 6 Learning the Tough Reality of the Development Process 5. 7 A New Role for Environmental Agencies?


The previous chapter has looked at several examples of policies and their implementation over the past 25 years that, for one reason or another, have not achieved their stated objectives.


Each example quoted, appears to have failed for different reasons, and sometimes for several reasons.


Each country is in some ways unique, but there may be some basic principles that can be applied, regardless of local conditions.


The general principle of sustainable forest management has become universally accepted, for tropical and temperate forests and in developed and developing countries. This chapter looks in turn at the more important factors that have contributed to policy failures, in order to see what lessons can be learned, that point to some general principles that can be applied, to improve the performance of forest policies in the future.