why is the gupta period called the golden age
1. How Do We Know? a. Archaeologists and Their Artifacts
b. Anthropologists and Their People c. Historians and Their Time d. Geographers and Their Space 2. Prehistoric Times a. "I Love Lucy" b. Food, Clothing and Shelter c. A Page Right Out of History d. First Technologies: Fire and Tools 3. Ancient Egypt a. Life along the Nile b. Egyptian Social Structure c. Dynasties d. Mummies e. Pyramids f. Women of Ancient Egypt 4. The Early Middle East a. Life in Sumer b. Babylonia c. Hammurabi's Code: An Eye for an Eye d. Assyrians: Cavalry and Conquests e. Persian Empire f. Phoenicians: Sailing Away g. Hebrews and the Land of Milk and Honey h. Birth of Christianity i. Muhammad and the Faith of Islam 5. Ancient Greece a. Rise of City-States: Athens and Sparta b. Democracy Is Born c. Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes d. Greek Literature e. Art and Architecture f. Thinkers g. Alexander the Great h. The Olympic Games 6. Ancient Rome a. The Roman Republic b. Julius Caesar c. The Pax Romana d. Life of the People e. Gladiators, Chariots, and the Roman Games f. The Fall of the Roman Empire 7. Africa a. Kingdom of Ghana b. Mali: A Cultural Center c. Benin and Its Royal Court d. Great Zimbabwe e. Life on the Desert 8. South Asia: India and Beyond a. Early Civilization in the Indus Valley b. The Caste System c. The Rise of Hinduism d. The Birth and Spread of Buddhism e. The Gupta Period of India 9. China a. The Middle Kingdom b. Shang Dynasty China's First Recorded History c. Han Dynasty Cultural Heights d. Tang Dynasty The Golden Age e. Taoism and Confucianism Ancient Philosophies 10. Japan: An Island Nation a. Japanese Religion and Spirituality b. Early History and Culture c. Feudal Japan: The Age of the Warrior d. The Martial Arts e. Life During the Edo Period 11. Central and South American Empires a. Blood of Kings: The World of the Maya b. Deciphering Maya Glyphs c. The Inca Empire: Children of the Sun d. The Aztec World e. Clash of Cultures: Two Worlds Collide 8e. The Gupta Period of India The Gupta Period of India was not characterized by enormous material wealth or by elaborate trade activity. It was defined by creativity. Flourishing arts, fabulous literature, and stupendous scholars are just a few of the things that marked the period. In 185 B. C. E. , the Mauryan empire collapsed when the last of the Mauryan kings was assassinated. In its place, small kingdoms arose throughout India. For nearly 500 years, the various states warred with each other. In the northern territories, a new empire arose when a ruler named Chandragupta I ascended the throne in 320 C. E. He revived many principles of Mauryan government and paved the way for his son, Samudragupta, to develop an extensive empire. Samudragupta was a great warrior and conquest was his passion.
He sought to unite all of India under his rule and quickly set out to achieve this goal by waging wars across much of the Indian subcontinent. Hoping for mercy, many potential victims offered tribute and presents to Samudragupta as he swept through the territories. But little mercy was granted. One by one, he defeated nine kings in the north and twelve in the south. In addition to the human devastation countless horses were slaughtered to celebrate his victories. The Gupta territories expanded so greatly under Samudragupta's reign that he has often been compared to great conquerors such as Alexander the Great and Napoleon. But of course he did not achieve military success singlehandedly. Local squads which each consisted of one elephant, one chariot, three armed cavalrymen, and five foot soldiers protected Gupta villages from raids and revolts. In times of war, the squads joined together to form a powerful royal army. But Samudragupta was more than a fighter; he was also a lover of the arts. Engraved coins and inscribed pillars from the time of his reign provide evidence of both his artistic talent and his patronage. He set the stage for the emergence of classical art, which occurred under the rule of his son and successor Chandragupta II. Chandragupta II gave great support to the arts. Artists were so highly valued under his rule that they were paid for their work a rare phenomenon in ancient civilizations. Perhaps it is due to this monetary compensation that such considerable progress was made in literature and science during the period. Much of the literature produced during the Gupta dynasty was poetry and drama. Narrative histories, religious and meditative writing, and lyric poetry emerged to enrich, educate, and entertain the people. Formal essays were composed on subjects ranging from grammar and medicine to math and astronomy. The best-known essay of the period is the Kamasutra, which provides rules about the art of love and marriage according to Hindu laws. Two of the most famous scholars of the era were Kalidasa and Aryabhatta. Kalidasa, the greatest writer of the empire, brought plays to new heights by filling them with humor and epic heroism. Aryabhatta, a scientist ahead of his time, went out on a limb and proposed that earth was a rotating sphere centuries before Columbus made his famous voyage. Aryabhatta also calculated the length of the solar year as 365. 358 days only three hours over the figure calculated by modern scientists. Alongside these scholarly achievements, magnificent architecture, sculpture, and painting also developed. Among the greatest paintings of this period are those that were found on the walls of the Ajanta Caves in the plains of southern India.
The paintings illustrate the various lives of the Buddha. An 18-foot statue of the Hindu god Shiva was also found within a Gupta-dynasty rock temple near Bombay. Although the Gupta rulers practiced Hindu rituals and traditions, it is clear from these discoveries that the empire was characterized by religious freedom. Evidence of a Buddhist university within the region is further proof of the peaceful coexistence between Hindus and Buddhists. The Gupta dynasty flourished immensely under Chandragupta II, but rapidly weakened during the reign of his two successors. A wave of invasions launched by the Huns, a nomadic group from central Asia, started in 480 C. E. Two decades later, Gupta kings had little territory left under their control. Around 550 C. E. , the empire perished completely. Though India was not truly unified again until the coming of the Muslims, the classical culture of the Guptas did not disappear. The flourishing arts of the region, which were unrivaled in their time, left more than a legacy. They left descendants of the Guptas with continuous inspiration to create. The of India occurs under the rule of the Gupta Dynasty (320 - 550 CE) The Gupta established a strong central government which also allowed a degree of local control. Gupta society was ordered in accordance with beliefs. This included a strict, or. The peace and prosperity created under Gupta leadership enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. Gupta mathematicians developed the concept of zero in the use of math, and also based on the number 10. They also created a number writing system that was later adopted by the. This system became known as, but is really a Gupta achievement. This is the number writing system used throughout the world today. Gupta physicians developed herbal remedies illnesses. They also developed a form of plastic surgery for the treatment of facial injuries. Physicians against smallpox, a practice later used in China (10th century) and Europe (17th century. ) gods. Also, built shrines to house the remains of select holy people. These structures were called Stupas. This form of architecture made its way to China where it was altered slightly and renamed the pagoda. Gupta literature consists of fables and folktales written in. These stories spread west to Persia, Egypt, and Greece, and became the basis for many Islamic literary works such as, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves and Aladdin and his Magic Lamp. The Gupta Dynasty declined due to weak rulers and a series of invasions, but many of their cultural and intellectual achievements were saved and transmitted to other cultures and live on today.
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